HSA 535 Week 11 Final Exam Part 2

HSA 535 Week 11 Final Exam Part 2

  1. Which of the following is not usually an aim of epidemiology?
  2. Which of the following activities characterizes a clinical approach (as opposed to an epidemiologic approach)?
  3. John Snow, author of Snow on Cholera:
  4. Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by immunization against rubella
  5. The difference between primary and secondary prevention of disease is:
  6. Using epidemiology for operational research involves:
  7. An epidemiologic survey of roller-skating injuries in Metroville, a city with a population of 100,000 (during the midpoint of the year), produced the following data for a particular year:
    Number of skaters in Metroville during any given month

    12,000

    Roller-skating injuries in Metroville

    600

    Total number of residents injured from roller-skating

    1,800

    Total number of deaths from roller-skating

    90

    Total number of deaths from all causes

    900

    The cause-specific mortality rate from roller-skating was:

  8. Blood pressure measurements on adult males 30-39 years of age were obtained in a survey of a representative sample of Twin Cities households. To compare the frequency of hypertension in the white and non-white population surveyed, the most appropriate measure is the:
  9. An epidemiologic survey of roller-skating injuries in Metroville, a city with a population of 100,000 (during the midpoint of the year), produced the following data for a particular year:
  10. Which of Mill’s four canons suggests that there is an association between frequency of disease and the potency of a causative factor?
  11. Descriptive epidemiology has the following characteristics (Choose the incorrect
    option):
  12. The use of GIS may be thought of as following the heritage of:
  13. Which of the following is not one of the four criteria for the utility of epidemiologic data?
  14. Which of the following data sources is most likely to provide a representative sample of the general health status of a population?
  15. A large medical center’s oncology program reported an increased number of cases of pancreatic cancer during a certain month. The hospital’s epidemiologist decided to research the problem. Tumor registry records were searched to identify all cases of pancreatic cancer during a five-year period; cancer patients were matched with patients treated for other diseases during the same five-year period. All subjects in the study were questioned about lifestyle factors including alcohol, tea, and coffee consumption. The resulting data are as follows:
  16. A large medical center’s oncology program reported an increased number of cases of pancreatic cancer during a certain month. The hospital’s epidemiologist decided to research the problem. Tumor registry records were searched to identify all cases of pancreatic cancer during a five-year period; cancer patients were matched with patients treated for other diseases during the same five-year period. All subjects in the study were questioned about lifestyle factors including alcohol, tea, and coffee consumption. The resulting data are as follows:
  17. Examples of descriptive epidemiologic studies do not usually include:
  18. As an epidemiologist you are going to investigate the effect of a drug suspected of causing malformations in newborn infants when the drug in question is taken by pregnant women during the course of their pregnancies. As your sample you will use the next 200 single births occurring in a given hospital. For each birth a medication history will be taken from the new mother and from her doctor; in addition, you will review medical records to verify use of the drug. [N.B.: These mothers are considered to have been followed prospectively during the entire course of their pregnancies, because a complete and accurate record of drug use was maintained during pregnancy.
  19. As an epidemiologist you are going to investigate the effect of a drug suspected of causing malformations in newborn infants when the drug in question is taken by pregnant women during the course of their pregnancies. As your sample you will use the next 200 single births occurring in a given hospital. For each birth a medication history will be taken from the new mother and from her doctor; in addition, you will review medical records to verify use of the drug. [N.B.: These mothers are considered to have been followed prospectively during the entire course of their pregnancies, because a complete and accurate record of drug use was maintained during pregnancy
  20. An ambispective cohort study is also known as a:
  21. A new screening test for Lyme disease is developed for use in the general population. The sensitivity and specificity of the new test are 60% and 70%, respectively. Three hundred people are screened at a clinic during the first year the new test is implemented. Assume the true prevalence of Lyme disease among clinic attendees is 10%.
  22. Sensitivity and specificity of a screening test refer to its:
  23. Drs. Poke and Jab (2014) conducted an employee health program that used 5 screening tests at the same time to detect diseases among workers. Which type of program is this?
  24. A person with an inapparent infection:
  25. Host factors in the causation of disease include:
  26. An outbreak of salmonellosis occurred after an epidemiology department luncheon, which was attended by 485 faculty and staff. Assume everyone ate the same food items. Sixty-five people had fever and diarrhea, five of these people were severely affected. Subsequent laboratory tests on everyone who attended the luncheon revealed an additional 72 cases.  The ratio of severe cases to other clinically apparent cases was:
  27. A situation in which the combined effect of several exposures is greater than the sum of the individual effects:
  28. It has been suggested that occupational exposure to benzene in the petroleum industry increases the risk of developing leukemia. The levels of benzene to which workers in this industry have been exposed were high from 1940 to 1970, but since 1970 have been significantly reduced. What kind of study design, using petroleum workers, would provide the most useful information on whether benzene affects incidence rates of leukemia in this industry? You may assume that records of individual worker assignments to jobs involving benzene exposure have been maintained by the industry.
  29. Personal behavior and lifestyle factors in health do not include:
  30. Selye’s concept of the general adaptation syndrome did not include: