Mental Health the Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia Discussion

Mental Health the Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia Discussion

Mental Health the Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia Discussion

ORDER NOW FOR AN EXCELLENT PAPER FROM HEALTH CARE PAPER GURUS: Mental Health the Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia Discussion

Question Description
I’m working on a Nursing question and need guidance to help me study.

QUESTION 1

A 21-year-old male college student was brought to Student Health Services by his girlfriend who was concerned about changes in her boyfriend’s behaviors. The girlfriend says that recently he began hearing voices and believes everyone is out to get him. The student says he is unable to finish school because the voices told him he was not smart enough. The girlfriend relates episodes of unexpected rage and crying. Past medical history noncontributory but family history positive for a first cousin who “had mental problems”. Denies current drug abuse but states he smoked marijuana every day during his junior and senior years of high school. He admits to drinking heavily on weekends at various fraternity houses. Physical exam reveals thin, anxious disheveled male who, during conversations, stops talking, cocks his head and appears to be listening to something. There is poor eye contact and conversation is rambling.
Based on the observed behaviors and information from girlfriend, the APRN believes the student has schizophrenia.

Question 1 of 4:

Describe the positive symptoms of schizophrenia and relate those symptoms to the case study patient.

QUESTION 2

A 21-year-old male college student was brought to Student Health Services by his girlfriend who was concerned about changes in her boyfriend’s behaviors. The girlfriend says that recently he began hearing voices and believes everyone is out to get him. The student says he is unable to finish school because the voices told him he was not smart enough. The girlfriend relates episodes of unexpected rage and crying. Past medical history noncontributory but family history positive for a first cousin who “had mental problems”. Denies current drug abuse but states he smoked marijuana every day during his junior and senior years of high school. He admits to drinking heavily on weekends at various fraternity houses. Physical exam reveals thin, anxious disheveled male who, during conversations, stops talking, cocks his head and appears to be listening to something. There is poor eye contact and conversation is rambling.
Based on the observed behaviors and information from girlfriend, the APRN believes the student has schizophrenia.

Question 2 of 4:

Explain the genetics of schizophrenia.

QUESTION 3

A 21-year-old male college student was brought to Student Health Services by his girlfriend who was concerned about changes in her boyfriend’s behaviors. The girlfriend says that recently he began hearing voices and believes everyone is out to get him. The student says he is unable to finish school because the voices told him he was not smart enough. The girlfriend relates episodes of unexpected rage and crying. Past medical history noncontributory but family history positive for a first cousin who “had mental problems”. Denies current drug abuse but states he smoked marijuana every day during his junior and senior years of high school. He admits to drinking heavily on weekends at various fraternity houses. Physical exam reveals thin, anxious disheveled male who, during conversations, stops talking, cocks his head and appears to be listening to something. There is poor eye contact and conversation is rambling.
Based on the observed behaviors and information from girlfriend, the APRN believes the student has schizophrenia.

Question 3 of 4:

The APRN reviews recent literature and reads that neurotransmitters are involved in the development of schizophrenia. What roles do neurotransmitters play in the development of schizophrenia?

QUESTION 4

A 21-year-old male college student was brought to Student Health Services by his girlfriend who was concerned about changes in her boyfriend’s behaviors. The girlfriend says that recently he began hearing voices and believes everyone is out to get him. The student says he is unable to finish school because the voices told him he was not smart enough. The girlfriend relates episodes of unexpected rage and crying. Past medical history noncontributory but family history positive for a first cousin who “had mental problems”. Denies current drug abuse but states he smoked marijuana every day during his junior and senior years of high school. He admits to drinking heavily on weekends at various fraternity houses. Physical exam reveals thin, anxious disheveled male who, during conversations, stops talking, cocks his head and appears to be listening to something. There is poor eye contact and conversation is rambling.
Based on the observed behaviors and information from girlfriend, the APRN believes the student has schizophrenia.

Question 4 of 4:

The APRN reviews recent literature and reads that structural problems in the brain may be involved in the development of schizophrenia. Explain what structural abnormalities are seen in people with schizophrenia.

QUESTION 5

A 34-year-old female was brought to the Urgent Care Center by her husband who is very concerned about the changes he has seen in his wife for the past 3 months. He states that his wife has had been depressed and irritable, has complaints of extreme fatigue, has lost 10 pounds and has had insomnia. He has come home from work to find his wife sitting in front of the TV and not moving for hours. In the past few days, she suddenly has become very hyperactive, has been talking incessantly, has been easily distracted and seems to “flit from one thing to another.”. She hasn’t slept in 3 days. The wife went on an excessive shopping spree for new clothes that resulted in their credit card being denied for exceeding the line of credit. The wife is unable to sit in the exam room and is currently pacing the hallway muttering to herself and is reluctant to talk with or be examined the ARNP. Physical observation shows agitated movements, rapid fire speech, and hyperactivity. Based on the history and observable symptoms, the APRN suspects that the patient has bipolar type 2 disorder. The APRN refers the patient and husband to the Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner for evaluation and treatment.
Question 1 of 6:

Discuss the role genetics plays in the development of bipolar 2 disorders.

QUESTION 6

A 34-year-old female was brought to the Urgent Care Center by her husband who is very concerned about the changes he has seen in his wife for the past 3 months. He states that his wife has had been depressed and irritable, has complaints of extreme fatigue, has lost 10 pounds and has had insomnia. He has come home from work to find his wife sitting in front of the TV and not moving for hours. In the past few days, she suddenly has become very hyperactive, has been talking incessantly, has been easily distracted and seems to “flit from one thing to another.”. She hasn’t slept in 3 days. The wife went on an excessive shopping spree for new clothes that resulted in their credit card being denied for exceeding the line of credit. The wife is unable to sit in the exam room and is currently pacing the hallway muttering to herself and is reluctant to talk with or be examined the ARNP. Physical observation shows agitated movements, rapid fire speech, and hyperactivity. Based on the history and observable symptoms, the APRN suspects that the patient has bipolar type 2 disorder. The APRN refers the patient and husband to the Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner for evaluation and treatment.
Question 2 of 6:

Explain how the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system may be associated with bipolar type 2 disease.

QUESTION 7

A 34-year-old female was brought to the Urgent Care Center by her husband who is very concerned about the changes he has seen in his wife for the past 3 months. He states that his wife has had been depressed and irritable, has complaints of extreme fatigue, has lost 10 pounds and has had insomnia. He has come home from work to find his wife sitting in front of the TV and not moving for hours. In the past few days, she suddenly has become very hyperactive, has been talking incessantly, has been easily distracted and seems to “flit from one thing to another.”. She hasn’t slept in 3 days. The wife went on an excessive shopping spree for new clothes that resulted in their credit card being denied for exceeding the line of credit. The wife is unable to sit in the exam room and is currently pacing the hallway muttering to herself and is reluctant to talk with or be examined the ARNP. Physical observation shows agitated movements, rapid fire speech, and hyperactivity. Based on the history and observable symptoms, the APRN suspects that the patient has bipolar type 2 disorder. The APRN refers the patient and husband to the Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner for evaluation and treatment.
Question 3 of 6:

Discuss the role inflammatory cytokines play in the development and exacerbation of bipolar type 2 symptoms

QUESTION 8

A 34-year-old female was brought to the Urgent Care Center by her husband who is very concerned about the changes he has seen in his wife for the past 3 months. He states that his wife has had been depressed and irritable, has complaints of extreme fatigue, has lost 10 pounds and has had insomnia. He has come home from work to find his wife sitting in front of the TV and not moving for hours. In the past few days, she suddenly has become very hyperactive, has been talking incessantly, has been easily distracted and seems to “flit from one thing to another.”. She hasn’t slept in 3 days. The wife went on an excessive shopping spree for new clothes that resulted in their credit card being denied for exceeding the line of credit. The wife is unable to sit in the exam room and is currently pacing the hallway muttering to herself and is reluctant to talk with or be examined the ARNP. Physical observation shows agitated movements, rapid fire speech, and hyperactivity. Based on the history and observable symptoms, the APRN suspects that the patient has bipolar type 2 disorder. The APRN refers the patient and husband to the Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner for evaluation and treatment.
Question 4 of 6:

Discuss the role of the amygdala in bipolar disorder.

QUESTION 9

A 34-year-old female was brought to the Urgent Care Center by her husband who is very concerned about the changes he has seen in his wife for the past 3 months. He states that his wife has had been depressed and irritable, has complaints of extreme fatigue, has lost 10 pounds and has had insomnia. He has come home from work to find his wife sitting in front of the TV and not moving for hours. In the past few days, she suddenly has become very hyperactive, has been talking incessantly, has been easily distracted and seems to “flit from one thing to another.”. She hasn’t slept in 3 days. The wife went on an excessive shopping spree for new clothes that resulted in their credit card being denied for exceeding the line of credit. The wife is unable to sit in the exam room and is currently pacing the hallway muttering to herself and is reluctant to talk with or be examined the ARNP. Physical observation shows agitated movements, rapid fire speech, and hyperactivity. Based on the history and observable symptoms, the APRN suspects that the patient has bipolar type 2 disorder. The APRN refers the patient and husband to the Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner for evaluation and treatment.
Question 6 of 6:

How does neurochemical dysregulation contribute to bipolar disorders?

QUESTION 10

A 34-year-old female was brought to the Urgent Care Center by her husband who is very concerned about the changes he has seen in his wife for the past 3 months. He states that his wife has had been depressed and irritable, has complaints of extreme fatigue, has lost 10 pounds and has had insomnia. He has come home from work to find his wife sitting in front of the TV and not moving for hours. In the past few days, she suddenly has become very hyperactive, has been talking incessantly, has been easily distracted and seems to “flit from one thing to another.”. She hasn’t slept in 3 days. The wife went on an excessive shopping spree for new clothes that resulted in their credit card being denied for exceeding the line of credit. The wife is unable to sit in the exam room and is currently pacing the hallway muttering to herself and is reluctant to talk with or be examined the ARNP. Physical observation shows agitated movements, rapid fire speech, and hyperactivity. Based on the history and observable symptoms, the APRN suspects that the patient has bipolar type 2 disorder. The APRN refers the patient and husband to the Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner for evaluation and treatment.
Question 6 of 6:

What is the current status of the use of nutraceuticals in management of depression?

QUESTION 11

A 27-year-old female presents to the Emergency Room, with a chief complaint of palpitations, rapid heart rate, sweating, tremors, and inability to catch her breath. The symptoms started about 10 hour ago and have gotten worse. She states she has some chest pain that remains constant no matter what. She also has numbness and tingling around her mouth and lips. She says she knows something “terrible is going to happen”. She denies having any similar episode in the past. Past medical history noncontributory. Social history significant for recent stressor of applying for medical school and taking the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT). She had not received the results prior to the episode but is sure that the failed the test. Says she doesn’t know if anyone else in her family has had similar episodes. Physical exam reveals a thin, anxious appearing female who is profusely sweating despite cool ambient air temperature. BP 176/88, Pulse 136, and respirations 26. Electrocardiogram negative for evidence of myocardial infarction and all lab data within normal limits except for mild respiratory alkalosis. The patient’s symptoms are subsiding and the patient states she is feeling better. The APRN suspects the patient has just experienced a panic attack.
Question 1 of 2:

What are panicogens and how do they contribute to the development of panic attack symptoms?

QUESTION 12

A 27-year-old female presents to the Emergency Room, with a chief complaint of palpitations, rapid heart rate, sweating, tremors, and inability to catch her breath. The symptoms started about 10 hour ago and have gotten worse. She states she has some chest pain that remains constant no matter what. She also has numbness and tingling around her mouth and lips. She says she knows something “terrible is going to happen”. She denies having any similar episode in the past. Past medical history noncontributory. Social history significant for recent stressor of applying for medical school and taking the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT). She had not received the results prior to the episode but is sure that the failed the test. Says she doesn’t know if anyone else in her family has had similar episodes. Physical exam reveals a thin, anxious appearing female who is profusely sweating despite cool ambient air temperature. BP 176/88, Pulse 136, and respirations 26. Electrocardiogram negative for evidence of myocardial infarction and all lab data within normal limits except for mild respiratory alkalosis. The patient’s symptoms are subsiding and the patient states she is feeling better. The APRN suspects the patient has just experienced a panic attack.
Question 2 of 2:

How does the GABA-benzodiazepine (BZ) receptor systems contribute to panic attacks/disorders?

QUESTION 13

A 21-year-old female college junior makes an appointment to see the APRN in the Student Health Clinic. The student tells the APRN that it has gotten harder and harder for her to attend classes, especially her history class where the class is preparing for the semester’s end presentations. She says she is terrified to speak to the class and is considering dropping the class so she will not have to present. She has a significant impairment in social activities and has resigned from her sorority. She is unable to go to the library to study as she feels everyone is looking at her and mocking her. She admits to having some of these symptoms in high school, but the guidance counselor was able to work with her to decrease some of her symptoms. Past medical history noncontributory except for the milder symptoms exhibited in high school. Family history noncontributory. Social history positive for anxiety related to social situations that has had a negative impact on both her scholarly and social endeavors. The APRN diagnoses the student with social anxiety disorder (SAD).
Question 1 of 2:

Describe the areas of the brain that are associated with social anxiety disorder.

QUESTION 14

A 21-year-old female college junior makes an appointment to see the APRN in the Student Health Clinic. The student tells the APRN that it has gotten harder and harder for her to attend classes, especially her history class where the class is preparing for the semester’s end presentations. She says she is terrified to speak to the class and is considering dropping the class so she will not have to present. She has a significant impairment in social activities and has resigned from her sorority. She is unable to go to the library to study as she feels everyone is looking at her and mocking her. She admits to having some of these symptoms in high school, but the guidance counselor was able to work with her to decrease some of her symptoms. Past medical history noncontributory except for the milder symptoms exhibited in high school. Family history noncontributory. Social history positive for anxiety related to social situations that has had a negative impact on both her scholarly and social endeavors. The APRN diagnoses the student with social anxiety disorder (SAD).
Question 2 of 2:

How is oxytocin associated with SAD?

QUESTION 15

A 36-year-old female comes to see the APRN in clinic with a chief complaint of “I’m so and I feel all keyed up all the time”. She states she feels restless, keyed up, and on edge most of the time. She fatigues easily and has difficulty concentrating and says her mind goes blank. She admits to being irritable and snapping at her coworkers which she worries will affect her job. She says the symptoms have been present for about 8 or 9 months. and Increased muscle tension. She has had difficulty falling asleep or stay sleeping. Further questioning revealed that prior to her symptoms, her parents got divorced which has been a great stressor for her. Past medical history noncontributory. Social history positive for a case of “nerves” when she was in high school that seemed to resolve after she graduated from college. No drug or alcohol history. The APRN believes the patient has generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).
Question 1 of 2:

Discuss the role of neurotransmitters in the expression of GAD.

QUESTION 16

A 36-year-old female comes to see the APRN in clinic with a chief complaint of “I’m so and I feel all keyed up all the time”. She states she feels restless, keyed up, and on edge most of the time. She fatigues easily and has difficulty concentrating and says her mind goes blank. She admits to being irritable and snapping at her coworkers which she worries will affect her job. She says the symptoms have been present for about 8 or 9 months. and Increased muscle tension. She has had difficulty falling asleep or stay sleeping. Further questioning revealed that prior to her symptoms, her parents got divorced which has been a great stressor for her. Past medical history noncontributory. Social history positive for a case of “nerves” when she was in high school that seemed to resolve after she graduated from college. No drug or alcohol history. The APRN believes the patient has generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).
Question 2 of 2:

Explain the structural brain changes that occur in people with GAD.

QUESTION 17

A 27-year-old man comes to the Veteran’s Administration Hospital at the insistence of his fiancée who accompanies him to the appointment. She tells the APRN that her fiancée has not “been the same” since he returned from his second tour in Iraq. He was an infantryman with a local Marine Reserve unit and served 2 tours and was honorably discharged. Since his return, he has had difficulty sleeping, and says he “sleeps with one eye open” and fears sleep. Deep sleep brings vivid nightmares. He grudgingly admits to having experienced several traumatic events during his second tour of duty. He is unwilling to discuss them and will not reveal specific details. He is short tempered and irritable and is afraid to be around people as he doesn’t want to snap at people and alienate them. He startles easily at loud noises, especially the sounds of cars backfiring. He admits to thinking there are threats everywhere and spends an excessive amount of time searching for them but never finding any. He has intrusive memories almost every day and says he really isn’t interested in doing much of anything. He is very worried that these symptoms are irreparably hurting his relationship with his fiancée who he loves very much. The APRN diagnoses him with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Question 1 of 2:

Describe the changes seen in the brain structure in patients with PTSD.

QUESTION 18

A 27-year-old man comes to the Veteran’s Administration Hospital at the insistence of his fiancée who accompanies him to the appointment. She tells the APRN that her fiancée has not “been the same” since he returned from his second tour in Iraq. He was an infantryman with a local Marine Reserve unit and served 2 tours and was honorably discharged. Since his return, he has had difficulty sleeping, and says he “sleeps with one eye open” and fears sleep. Deep sleep brings vivid nightmares. He grudgingly admits to having experienced several traumatic events during his second tour of duty. He is unwilling to discuss them and will not reveal specific details. He is short tempered and irritable and is afraid to be around people as he doesn’t want to snap at people and alienate them. He startles easily at loud noises, especially the sounds of cars backfiring. He admits to thinking there are threats everywhere and spends an excessive amount of time searching for them but never finding any. He has intrusive memories almost every day and says he really isn’t interested in doing much of anything. He is very worried that these symptoms are irreparably hurting his relationship with his fiancée who he loves very much. The APRN diagnoses him with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Question 2 of 2:

Briefly discuss the role glucocorticoids may have on the development of PTSD.

QUESTION 19

A 17-year-old male high school junior comes to the clinic to establish care. He recently moved from a relatively urban area to a very rural area and has just started his junior year in a new school. The mother states that she has noticed that her son has been frequently washing his hands and avoids contact with any dirty or soiled object. He uses paper towels or napkins over the knob on a door when opening it. According to the mother, this behavior has just appeared since moving. The patient, upon close questioning, admits that he is “grossed out” by some of the boys in the boys’ room since they use the toilet and do not wash their hand afterwards. He is worried about all the germs the boys are carrying around. Past medical history is noncontributory. Social history -lives with parents and 2 siblings in a house in a new town. Is an honors student. Based on these behaviors, The APRN thinks the patient has obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
Question 1 of 2:

What is primary pathophysiology of OCD?

QUESTION 20

A 17-year-old male high school junior comes to the clinic to establish care. He recently moved from a relatively urban area to a very rural area and has just started his junior year in a new school. The mother states that she has noticed that her son has been frequently washing his hands and avoids contact with any dirty or soiled object. He uses paper towels or napkins over the knob on a door when opening it. According to the mother, this behavior has just appeared since moving. The patient, upon close questioning, admits that he is “grossed out” by some of the boys in the boys’ room since they use the toilet and do not wash their hand afterwards. He is worried about all the germs the boys are carrying around. Past medical history is noncontributory. Social history -lives with parents and 2 siblings in a house in a new town. Is an honors student. Based on these behaviors, The APRN thinks the patient has obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
Question 2 of 2:

You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.

Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.

Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.

The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.

ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CLASS

Discussion Questions (DQ)

Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.
Weekly Participation

Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).
Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.
APA Format and Writing Quality

Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.
Use of Direct Quotes

I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.
LopesWrite Policy

For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.
Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.
Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.
Late Policy

The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.
Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.
I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.
Communication

Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:
Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.