PSY 7610 Tests and Measurements Discussion Tasks

PSY 7610 Tests and Measurements Discussion Tasks

PSY7610 Tests and Measurements

Week 1 Discussion

Assumptions About Psychological Testing and Assessment

In the unit introduction, you read about the influence that your history and previous experiences with tests may have on your perception of them at the start of this course. Remember to set aside these perceptions as you enter the course and learn about tests and their measurement. Remain cognizant of them as you proceed so they do not prevent you from learning about tests and, perhaps, change your mind, either way, about them. Additionally, in your readings from the Psychological Testing and Assessment text, you were introduced to seven basic assumptions about psychological assessment. Identify the one assumption that was the most difficult for you to accept based on your current understanding or previous experiences with testing.

In your post:

Identify the assumption by number and title that presented the most questions for you. (Include the number and title in your subject line of the discussion thread when you post it.) Also, include an indicator about how concerning the assumption is to you at this time (that is, 0 = No concern at all, just the most problematic relative to all other assumptions I am presented; 1 = Somewhat concerned with this assumption; 2 = Very concerned with this assumption; 3 = Significantly concerned and in disagreement with this assumption).

Identify specific parts or elements of the assumption that were most concerning to you.

Analyze if the assumption elements identified are based on (a) your previous experiences, (b) others’ perspectives, (c) facts, or (d) a combination of these.

Discuss why these elements were most concerning to you in terms of those previous experiences, perspectives, or facts. Essentially, share an example of those experiences or knowledge that resulted in your current concern.

Identify which future chapter in the Psychological Testing and Assessment text may be important and relevant for you, based on the assumption you identified. (Hint: Look through the Table of Contents or Index in your text for help.)

Response Guidelines

Carefully read the response guidelines regarding the two different submissions required for response posts.

Respond to the posts of at least two other learners. Attempt to identify one post that is the same as your choice and one that is different from your choice. Discuss how the content of the post is similar to or different from your post and explore how different experiences and knowledge result in different perspectives. Focus on providing facts, rather than opinion, to support the assumption being presented as concerning to them. Keep in mind that the objective of response posts is to stimulate discussion, promote an exchange of ideas, and (most importantly) to generate a sense of community among learners in the courseroom.

Learning Components

This activity will help you achieve the following learning components:

Research the development of tests and testing.

Investigate testing from the perspective of test takers.

Apply writing and citations skills appropriate for doctoral-level learners.

 

PSY7610 Tests and Measurements

Week 2 Discussion

The Scales We Use and the Comparisons We Make

In this unit, you are introduced to four scales of measurement, which are easily remembered with the acronym NOIR, and include nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. Each of these levels or scales of measurement has its own properties, methods for assigning numbers or scores, and procedures for statistically manipulating them. As noted in your Psychological Testing and Assessment text, and adhering to a fundamentalist view of measurement statistics, all possible attributes in psychology can be examined through at least one of these four scales and the creation of scores that purport to measure them.

You also read about two methods for evaluating those scores by comparing them to a reference set of data; namely, norm-referenced testing and assessment, and criterion-referenced testing and assessment. Each of these methods is unique in the focus regarding a test’s scores or results.

Discuss the impact of each scale of measurement on the ability or inability to be utilized on a test being standardized as a norm-referenced or criterion-referenced assessment. For the purpose of this discussion, you may cluster the ordinal and interval scale together. Subsequently, your post will include the following four elements:

Ordinal or interval scale of measurement and norm-referenced test.

Ordinal or interval scale of measurement and criterion-referenced test.

Ratio scale of measurement and norm-referenced test.

Ratio scale of measurement and criterion-referenced test.

In your post:

Provide at least one example that is not in your Psychological Testing and Assessment text for each combination above and describe how the referencing data would be collected.

Provide a statement that evaluates which scale of measurement appears to be the most useful for examining attributes in psychology. Explain.

Evaluate which method of referencing (norm or criterion) appears to be the most useful for examining attributes in psychology. Explain your decision based on the area of focus regarding the test results. For example, identify if it is preferable to focus on how one individual performs relative to others who took the same test, or if it is preferable to only focus on what the individual can or cannot do.

Response Guidelines

Respond to the posts of at least two other learners.

Learning Components

This activity will help you achieve the following learning components:

Describe types of measurements used in testing.

Describe areas of specialization in relation to testing.

Apply writing and citations skills appropriate for doctoral-level learners.

 

PSY7610 Tests and Measurements

Week 3 Discussion

Is the Measure of Consistency a State of Mind?

In your unit readings from the Psychological Testing and Assessment text, you read about three sources of error variance that occur in testing and assessment. These include test construction, test administration, and test scoring and interpretation. Additionally, other sources of error may be suspect. You were also introduced to reliability coefficients, which provide information about these sources of error variance on a test (see Table 5-4).

The following reliability coefficients were obtained from studies on a new test, THING, purporting to measure a new construct (that is, Something). Alternate forms of the test were also developed and examined in subsequent studies published in the peer-reviewed journals. The alternate test forms were titled THING 1 and THING 2. (Remember to refer back to your Psychological Testing and Assessment text for information about using and interpreting a coefficient of reliability.)

Internal consistency reliability coefficient = .92

Alternate forms reliability coefficient = .82

Test-retest reliability coefficient = .50

In your post:

Describe what these scores mean.

Interpret these results individually in terms of the information they provide on sources of error variance.

Synthesize all of these interpretations into a final evaluation about this test’s utility or usefulness.

Explain whether these data are acceptable.

Explain under what conditions they may not be acceptable and under what conditions, if any, they may be appropriate.

Response Guidelines

Respond to the posts of at least two other learners.

Learning Components

This activity will help you achieve the following learning components:

Define test reliability.

Explain statistical knowledge needed to use and interpret tests.

Analyze peer-reviewed literature on reliability.

Apply writing and citations skills appropriate for doctoral-level learners.

 

PSY7610 Tests and Measurements

Week 4 Discussion

Validity: The Test Doth Purport Too Much, Methinks

In your unit readings, you read about two approaches or models of validity—trinitarian and unitary. In some ways, these two models are competing views of gathering evidence for a test’s validity. In other ways, the two approaches have an overlap of elements.

In your post:

Compare and contrast these two models in terms of how they conceptualize validity.

Identify at least one advantage and disadvantage of each model.

Decide which model appears to be the most valid for determining validity of a test.

Explain your decision in terms of the implications for decision making about a test’s validity.

Be sure to include citations from Guion’s 1980 article, “On Trinitarian Doctrines of Validity,” and Messick’s 1995 article, “Validity of Psychological Assessment: Validation of Inferences From Persons’ Responses and Performances As Scientific Inquiry Into Score Meaning.”

Response Guidelines

Respond to the posts of at least two other learners.

Learning Components

This activity will help you achieve the following learning components:

Analyze peer-reviewed literature on validity.

Apply writing and citations skills appropriate for doctoral-level learners.

 

PSY7610 Tests and Measurements

Week 5 Discussion

Beyond Bias: Methods for Fairness in Testing

In the unit readings from your Psychological Testing and Assessment text, you read about misconceptions regarding test bias and test fairness—two terms that are often incorrectly considered synonymous. While questions regarding test bias have been addressed through technical means, issues with test fairness are tied to values. The text attempts to define test fairness in a psychometric context and provides eight techniques for preventing or remedying adverse impact on one or another group (see page 209). One of these techniques included differential cutoffs. Furthermore, you were introduced to a variety of methods for setting cut scores. These methods have been based on either CTT or IRT.

For this discussion, synthesize the information you learned about these two theories and respective methods. In your post:

Determine which one is preferential for responding to questions about a test’s fairness.

Identify at least two advantages and two disadvantages in using each theory, citing appropriate American Educational Research Association (AERA) standards from your readings.

Defend your preference in terms of the methods used within each theory and how they apply to concepts of fairness across groups. Essentially, how does it best address test fairness?

Describe how advances in technology are improving the process of test development and inclusion of appropriate items.

Response Guidelines

Respond to the posts of at least two other learners.

Learning Components

This activity will help you achieve the following learning components:

Describe the characteristics of fair test items and procedures.

Define roles of technology in testing.

Apply writing and citations skills appropriate for doctoral-level learners.

 

PSY7610 Tests and Measurements

Week 6 Discussion

Intelligence: From Theory to Test

In this unit, you are introduced to a variety of theories of intelligence, including Spearman’s two-factor theory (1927), Cattell-Horn’s two-factor theory (1966), Luria’s information processing approach (1966), Cattell-Horn and Carroll’s CHC model (1997), and Carroll’s three- stratum theory (1997).

In your post:

Describe how these theories differ in regard to the ever-reversing role of general intellectual ability factor (g).

Explain how these theories are relied upon in each of the following current tests that you also read about in this unit. Please note that some of these tests may now rely on more than one theory, or a theory different than the original versions of the same test. Subsequently, you will need to address such multiple contributions and only for the versions listed below (for example, fifth edition).

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, fourth and fifth editions.

Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, second edition.

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, fifth edition.

Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities, third or fourth editions.

Explain your thoughts regarding an intelligence test that has a dual theoretical basis, based on your readings and review of the theoretical influences on these tests. Explain your position by including consideration of validity.

Explain which theory of intelligence you find yourself most affiliated with in the context of your professional goals.

Explain how your selected theoretical model aligns with your interests and career.

Response Guidelines

Respond to the posts of at least two other learners.

Learning Components

This activity will help you achieve the following learning components:

Describe applications of theory in testing.

Apply writing and citations skills appropriate for doctoral-level learners.

 

PSY7610 Tests and Measurements

Week 7 Discussion

Using the Right Tool for the Right Job

In this unit, you read about changes over time in the procedures for evaluating SLDs. Recently, most states changed their existing rules and regulations to include an RTI model, which identifies three levels of intervention or teaching to facilitate learning for all students. Subsequently, it became important to determine tests or assessments, which would provide monitoring or progress within each level of instructional intervention. However, this model for teaching has now been utilized as a method for identifying students as having a learning disability.

You were also introduced to a number of diagnostic measures for monitoring progress, which included nationally standardized tests, as well as locally normed standardized measurement procedures called CBM. In addition, the authors of your Psychological Testing and Assessment text presented several questions or concerns regarding the use of diagnostic tests when working with individuals suspected as having a learning disability.

Based on your unit readings, complete the following for this discussion:

Outline the concerns that may exist with using an RTI model when identifying students suspected as having a learning disability.

Identify some of the limitations or concerns that may result from using diagnostic tests (both nationally standardized and CBM) when working with all students, as well as students suspected as having a learning disability.

Identify some of the strengths in using these tests or measurements for progress monitoring.

Summarize this information and present a recommendation for the use of the RTI model, nationally standardized diagnostic tests, locally normed CBM, and intelligence and academic achievement tests, and their role in monitoring educational progress and identification of a learning disability.

Be sure to cite specific AERA standards for educational testing and assessment that have direct bearing on this discussion; in particular, assessments serving multiple purposes, and informing teaching and learning.

Response Guidelines

Respond to the posts of at least two other learners.

Learning Components

This activity will help you achieve the following learning components:

Investigate testing from the perspective of test takers.

Analyze applications of testing for different purposes and populations.

Apply writing and citations skills appropriate for doctoral-level learners.

 

PSY7610 Tests and Measurements

Week 8 Discussion

To V or Not to V

In this unit, you are introduced to personality tests and issues with their development and use. One particular area of debate involves the inclusion of validity scales in tests of personality. While many concerns may exist, the use of such scales appears to be increasing and they continue to be utilized and interpreted.

In your post:

Analyze how validity in psychometrics, as you explored in Unit 4, is different from a validity scale in a test of personality.

Describe this difference in terms of their definitions.

Provide at least two examples of validity scales.

Integrate and cite the AERA standards from Chapter 10, “Psychological Testing and Assessment,” of your Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing text that directly address validity scales. Provide your interpretation of the standards and the use of validity scales.

Discuss if the standards permit, reject, or provide guidance on integrating such scales in a report.

State, in your own words, how one should, or should not, proceed with validity scales.

Cite at least one advantage and one disadvantage regarding the use of validity scales. The test authors provide several pros and cons of using validity scales in personality assessment.

Based on your readings, including preparation for this discussion, what is your position on this issue; that is, using and interpreting validity scales on a measure of personality?

When you post this discussion, change your subject line to Use, or Don’t Use.

Response Guidelines

Respond to the posts of at least two other learners.

Learning Components

This activity will help you achieve the following learning components:

Analyze applications of testing for different purposes and populations.

Apply writing and citations skills appropriate for doctoral-level learners.

 

PSY7610 Tests and Measurements

Week 9 Discussion

Andy: A Story of Screening and Referral

In this unit, you are introduced to the clinical psychology, counseling psychology, and neuropsychology branches of psychology. While these three specialty areas share overlap with goals for clients and the tools they employ in the process of assessment, they each have unique content knowledge and skill they acquired through training and provide differentiated roles and services. Subsequently, the referring concern and the needs of an individual will likely indicate which professional may be best suited to complete the assessment.

In Units 6 through 9, you have studied different applications of tests and measurements in a variety of settings and specialty areas. Regardless of the specialization, it is likely that at some time, a psychologist will have a client with one of the referral concerns including possible neurological problems. In this unit, you read about psychologists using a standard battery to gather information on an individual from a variety of tests and instruments as a means of screening for a neurological deficit. A minimum amount of testing for an adequate neuropsychological screening includes an intelligence test, a personality test, and a perceptual, motor, or memory test.

In this discussion, you will refer to the following case study to answer the questions in Part 1 and Part 2 of this activity. Andy was referred to you, a psychologist.

Case Study

Details:

Name: Andrew “Andy” Davis.

Age: 6 years, 0 months.

Mother: Emily Davis, single parent.

Sibling: Molly.

Recent changes: Relocation to a smaller house, father abandoned family.

Referral concerns (reported by mother): Frequent intense imaginative play, significantly reduced social interactions, talks to self in his room, destroys toys (for example, rips arms of dolls), falls frequently, and concerns that he fell down stairs (with no open head injury) at the new house (that is, Andy reported falling down and off staircase railing).

Part 1

Based on this referral information, what would be the three tests you would include in a standard battery for screening purposes that include neurological concerns?

You may use, as a guide, the same test list that was provided to you in Unit 2. You are allowed to choose tests outside of those on the list. This task will allow you to review tests covered in earlier units of this course, as well as some that are introduced in this unit. However, remember to address a minimum of three recommended areas of assessment for a screening of this type. Be sure to take into consideration age range appropriate for the tests and instruments you select. Then, provide an explanation for using each instrument and how it connects to your working hypothesis on Andy and his mother’s concerns.

Part 2

You complete your evaluation using the three (or more) tests in your standard battery and obtain signs signaling that a more thorough neuropsychological evaluation is recommended. Subsequently, Andy is referred to Dr. Woody Pride, a neuropsychologist. Dr. Pride decides to administer Andy the Brief Neuropsychological Cognitive Examination (BNCE) published by WPS since it can be administered in one sitting and reports that it minimizes reading skills to complete it.

Based on this information from Dr. Pride, and after conducting your own research on this test selection, determine if this is an appropriate test to obtain additional data on Andy regarding neuropsychological concerns. If it is appropriate, then state that and provide your rationale for supporting this as a test selection. If it is not appropriate, then state that and provide your rationale for rejecting this as a test selection. Finally, regardless if you find the BNCE appropriate or not for Andy and the referring concerns, identify a second neuropsychological test that would be highly recommended for its use with Andy (you may select one from the list provided you in Unit 2, or another neuropsychological test battery).

As a test user, identify any AERA standards regarding The Rights and Responsibilities of Test Users, which are implicated in this case study of Andy Davis.

Response Guidelines

Respond to the posts of at least two other learners.

Learning Components

This activity will help you achieve the following learning components:

Analyze applications of testing for different purposes and populations.

Apply writing and citations skills appropriate for doctoral-level learners.

 

 

 

 

PSY7610 Tests and Measurements

Week 10 Discussion

Program Evaluation of an Assessment Center

In this unit, you read about a variety of resources, such as tests or measures and methods, which can be utilized in a variety of work settings.

In many settings, several of these resources are incorporated into a single comprehensive design or program to address multiple issues or needs, or answer multiple questions. One such program is the assessment center, which you were introduced to in your Psychological Testing and Assessment text. Since an assessment center, or any similar program using multiple assessment techniques (for example, school counseling programs, and special education intervention programs), typically provides decisions regarding a number of questions, then it is important, if not a requirement, to evaluate the program for efficacy and utility.

You also learned about the concept of utility in the context of testing and assessment as applied to a single measure in Unit 5. Considerations involved in determining utility can also be applied to large-scale testing programs that employ multiple tests or measures in a selected battery.

While the authors of your Psychological Testing and Assessment text introduced an assessment center from 1956 that incorporated multiple tools and methods, the Thornton and Gibbons’ 2009 article, “Validity of Assessment Centers for Personnel Selection,” elaborated on a review of the validity of elements of contemporary assessment centers and considerations when employing them.

Instructions

For this discussion, take into consideration the factors that affect a test’s utility, which was identified in your Psychological Testing and Assessment text as psychometric soundness, costs, and benefits (pages 212–218), as well as practical considerations when conducting utility analyses, which includes pool of applicants, complexity of the job, and use of cut scores (pages 232–235).

Identify three specific measures for a management assessment center addressing selection, placement, promotion, and career training.

Identify a specific instrument for each of the following areas:

Ability or aptitude testing.

Occupational career or interests.

Personality.

Discuss one advantage and one disadvantage in selecting these tests for the battery.

Identify at least one issue regarding factors of utility and utility analysis with this battery of tests.

Include how you would evaluate the effectiveness of incorporating your measures into this battery. How would you determine that the three tests are adequate for addressing the purposes of selection, placement, promotion, and career training?

Include, in your discussion, if and how computerized assessment could be incorporated into your battery or evaluation.

Response Guidelines

Respond to the post of at least one other learner.

Learning Components

This activity will help you achieve the following learning components:

Explain how testing may have utility in settings of use.

Analyze applications of testing for different purposes and populations.

Apply writing and citations skills appropriate for doctoral-level learners.